The European Goldfinch belongs to a group of red- or yellow-faced species.
|Many, see text|
(but see article text)
The genus Carduelis is a large group of birds in the finch family Fringillidae. It includes the greenfinches, redpolls, goldfinches, linnets, the twite and the non-African siskins. No species of this group ranges far into Africa (where they are replaced by the related genus Serinus), and the centers of evolution were probably Eurasia and North America, with a secondary radiation in the Neotropics.
The interrelationship of these species is complex and contentious. It is fairly certain that the crossbills are actually derived from proto-redpoll ancestors quite recently, and it was suggested that they should be placed into this genus. On the other hand, the greenfinches (which are apparently the most distinct group) and the redpolls have themselves been separated in distinct genera which might be the best way to express both the actual evolutionary relationships and the evolutionarily significant distinctiveness of the crossbills. The molecular data indicates that the major lineages split in the Late Miocene (Tortonian, roughly 9-7 mya), but it is unable to suggest any one robust arrangement either of the major groups among each other or among the lineages of Carduelis sensu stricto. As only the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence has hitherto been studied (Arnaiz-Villena et al., 1998), more data is clearly necessary.
Here, the species of Carduelis sensu lato are listed according to current knowledge. The genus Carduelis sensu stricto could conceivably be split further, and in this case only the European Goldfinch and the Citril and Corsican Finch (newly placed in his genus) would remain in Carduelis.
- Black-headed Greenfinch, Carduelis ambigua
European Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris
Oriental Greenfinch, Carduelis sinica
Vietnamese Greenfinch, Carduelis monguilloti
Yellow-breasted Greenfinch, Carduelis spinoides
The Desert Finch, Carduelis obsoletus, has recently turned out be a primitive form in this group (Zamora et al., 2006).
- Arctic Redpoll, or Hoary Redpoll, Carduelis
Common Redpoll, or Mealy Redpoll, Carduelis flammea
Lesser Redpoll, Carduelis cabaret
- 3 - 5+ species
Carduelis sensu stricto
- European Goldfinch, Carduelis carduelis
Citril Finch, Serinus citrinella
Corsican Finch, Serinus corsicana
Linnets and Twite
- Eurasian Linnet, Carduelis cannabina
Warsangli Linnet, Carduelis johannis
Yemen Linnet, Carduelis yemenensis
Twite, Carduelis flavirostris
American goldfinches and Eurasian siskin
- American Goldfinch, Carduelis tristis
Lesser Goldfinch, Carduelis psaltria
Lawrence's Goldfinch, Carduelis lawrencei
Eurasian Siskin, or Spruce Siskin, Carduelis spinus
Pine Siskin, Carduelis pinus
- Andean Siskin, Carduelis spinescens
Antillean Siskin, Carduelis dominicensis
Black Siskin, Carduelis atrata
Black-capped Siskin, Carduelis atriceps
Black-chinned Siskin, Carduelis barbata
Black-headed Siskin, Carduelis notata
Hooded Siskin, Carduelis magellanica
Olivaceous Siskin, Carduelis olivacea
Red Siskin, Carduelis cucullata
Saffron Siskin, Carduelis siemiradzkii
Thick-billed Siskin, Carduelis crassirostris
Yellow-bellied Siskin, Carduelis xanthogastra
Yellow-faced Siskin, Carduelis yarrellii
Yellow-rumped Siskin, Carduelis uropygialis
- Arnaiz-Villena, A.; Álvarez-Tejado, M.; Ruiz-del-Valle, V.; García-de-la-Torre, C.; Varela, P.; Recio, M. J.; Ferre. S. & Martínez-Laso, J. (1998): Phylogeny and rapid Northern and Southern Hemisphere speciation of goldfinches during the Miocene and Pliocene Epochs. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 54(9): 1031–1041. DOI:10.1007/s000180050230 PDF fulltext. Erratum, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 55(1): 148. DOI:10.1007/s000180050280 PDF fulltext
- Zamora, Jorge; Lowy, Ernesto; Ruiz-del-Valle, Valentin; Moscoso, Juan; Serrano-Vela, Juan Ignacio; Rivero-de-Aguilar, Juan & Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio (2006): Rhodopechys obsoleta (desert finch): a pale ancestor of greenfinches (Carduelis spp.) according to molecular phylogeny. Journal of Ornithology 147(3): 448–456. DOI:10.1007/s10336-005-0036-2 (HTML abstract). Erratum, Journal of Ornithology 147(3): 511–512 DOI:10.1007/s10336-006-0072-6
- ^ From Latin carduus, "thistle". Thistle seeds are a favorite food of many species.
- Carduelis videos on the Internet Bird Collection