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Southern Hill Myna
Southern Hill Myna
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Gracula
Linnaeus, 1758
G. religiosa
G. indica
G. enganensis
G. robusta
G. ptilogenys

Gracula is a genus of mynas, tropical members of the starling family of birds.

This genus has representatives in tropical southern Asia from India and Sri Lanka east to Indonesia, and the Hill Myna, a popular cage bird, has been introduced to the USA.

Until recently only two species were recognised, the Sri Lanka Myna and the Hill Myna, but three former subspecies of the latter have now been elevated to species status.

The Gracula mynas are resident breeders typically found in forest and cultivation. The nest is built in a hole and the usual clutch is two or three eggs.

These 25-30 cm long birds have glossy black plumage and large white wing patches which are obvious in flight. The bill and strong legs are bright yellow or orange, and there are yellow wattles on the head, the shape and position of which vary with species. The sexes are similar, but juveniles have a duller bill.

Like most starlings, the Gracula mynas are fairly omnivorous, eating fruit, nectar and insects.


  • Hill Myna, Gracula religiosa
    Southern Hill Myna, Gracula indica
    Enggano Myna, Gracula enganensis
    Nias Myna, Gracula robusta
    Sri Lanka Myna, Gracula ptilogenys


  • Birds of India by Grimmett, Inskipp and Inskipp, ISBN 0-691-04910-6
  • Starlings and Mynas by Freare and Craig, ISBN 0-7136-3961-X

Home | Up | Acridotheres | Aplonis | Buphaginae | Gracula | Sturnus

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