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Birds Guide

(Probably) Extinct birds

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(Probably) Extinct subspecies of birds

Extinction of subspecies is a subject very dependent on guesswork. National and international conservation projects and research publications such as redlists usually focus on species as a whole. Reliable information on the status of threatened subspecies usually has to be assembled piecemeal from published observations such as regional checklists. Therefore, the following listing contains a high proportion of taxa that may just as well still exist, but are listed here due to any combination of absence of recent records, a known threat such as habitat destruction, or an observed decline.

Contents

Struthioniformes

The Ostrich and related ratites.

  • Arabian Ostrich, Struthio camelus syriacus (Arabia, 1966) - Ostrich subspecies
    Tasmanian Emu, Dromaius novaehollandiae diemenensis (Tasmania, mid-19th century) - Emu subspecies
    North Island Little Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx owenii iredalei (North Island, New Zealand, late 19th century) - Little Spotted Kiwi subspecies

Tinamiformes

Tinamous

  • Pernambuco Solitary Tinamou, Tinamus solitarius pernambucensis (E Brazil, c.1970s)
A subspecies of the Solitary Tinamou which may not be valid but probably is.
  • Huila Black Tinamou, Tinamus osgoodi hershkovitzi (Colombia, 1980s?)
A Black Tinamou subspecies or possibly a distinct species; not seen since 1976 but might persist in Cueva de los Guácharos National Park.

Anseriformes

Ducks, geese and swans.

  • Bering Cackling Goose, Branta hutchinsii asiatica (Komandorskie and Kurile Islands, N Pacific, c.1914 or 1929)
A subspecies of the Cackling Goose (formerly "Lesser Canada Geese") which is doubtfully distinct from the Aleutian one.
  • Washington Island Gadwall, Anas strepera couesi (Teraina, Kiribati, late 19th century) - Gadwall subspecies. Controversial species, as many scientists think that it just might be a immature of the Common Gadwall Anas strepera strepera which was drifted to Teraina.
  • Rennell Island Teal, Anas gibberifrons remissa (Rennell, Solomon Islands, c.1959)
A subspecies of the Sunda Teal which disappeared due to predation on young birds by the introduced tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.
  • Niceforo's Pintail, Anas georgica niceforoi (Colombia, 1950s) - Yellow-billed Pintail subspecies
  • Borrero's Cinnamon Teal, Anas cyanoptera borreroi (Colombia, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Cinnamon Teal known only from a restricted area in the Cordillera Occidental of Colombia. It is either very rare or already extinct.

Galliformes

Quails and relatives.

  • Italian Grey Partridge, Perdix perdix italica (Italy, c.1990)
A subspecies of the Grey Partridge whose validity has been questioned; the last purebred individuals disappeared during the late 1980s due to hybridization with introduced birds.
  • Amik Gölü Black Francolin, Francolinus francolinus billypayni (S Turkey, possibly Lebanon, 1960s)
A doubtfully distinct subspecies of the Black Francolin.
  • Sicilian Black Francolin, Francolinus francolinus ssp. (Sicily, Mediterranean, c.1869)
Another doubtfully distinct Black Francolin subspecies.
  • Heath Hen, Tympanuchus cupido cupido, (New England, North America, 1932)
A subspecies of the Greater Prairie-Chicken or possibly a distinct species.
  • New Mexico Sharp-tailed Grouse, Tympanuchus phasianellus hueyi (New Mexico, North America, 1954) - Sharp-tailed Grouse subspecies
  • Moroccan Guineafowl, Numida meleagris sabyi (Morocco, mid-20th century or early 1980s)
A subspecies of the Helmeted Guineafowl. Reportedly still kept in captivity in Morocco in late 1990s. Possibly extinct by 1950, the 3 1970s records may refer to feral domestic hybrids.

Charadriiformes

Shorebirds, gulls and auks.

  • North Island Snipe, Coenocorypha aucklandica barrierensis (North Island, New Zealand, 1870s) - New Zealand Snipe subspecies
    South Island Snipe, Coenocorypha aucklandica iredalei (South and Stewart Islands, New Zealand, 1964) - New Zealand Snipe subspecies
    Tawitawi Small Buttonquail, Turnix sylvatica suluensis (Tawitawi, Philippines, mid-20th century) - Small Buttonquail subspecies
    New Caledonia Painted Buttonquail, Turnix varia novaecaledoniae (New Caledonia, Melanesia, early 20th century)
A subspecies of the Painted Buttonquail of somewhat unclear status, it is variously considered anything between a hybrid between introduced species to a full species. Plentiful subfossil bones indicate that it was indeed a good endemic form.
  • Kiritimati Sandpiper, Prosobonia cancellata cancellata (Kiritimati, Kiribati, 19th century?)
The doubtfully distinct nominate subspecies of the Tuamotu Sandpiper, sometimes considered a distinct species, but only known from a painting.

Gruiformes

Rails and allies.

  • Goldman's Yellow Rail, Coturnicops noveboracensis goldmani (Mexico, late 1960s) - Yellow Rail subspecies
    Macquarie Island Buff-banded Rail, Gallirallus philippensis macquariensis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, 1880s) - Buff-banded Rail subspecies
    Raoul Island Banded Rail, Gallirallus philippensis ssp. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, SW Pacific, late 19th century?)
Reports of the former occurrence of the species on Raoul seem plausible enough, but they may relate to vagrant individuals of another Buff-banded Rail subspecies.
  • Peruvian Rail, Rallus semiplumbeus peruvianus (Peru, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Bogota Rail which is known from a single specimen collected in the 1880s. It may still be extant.
  • Western Australian Lewin's Rail, Lewinia pectoralis cleleandi (SW Australia, late 1930s) - Lewin's Rail subspecies
  • Flores Lewin's Rail, Lewinia pectoralis exsul (Flores, Indonesia, late 19th century?)
A Lewin's Rail subspecies known only form 4 specimens. Not seen since 1959 despite attempts to find it, it is apparently extinct.
  • Assumption White-throated Rail, Dryolimnas cuvieri abbotti (Assumption, Astove and Cosmoledo, Aldabra Islands, early 20th century) - White-throated Rail subspecies.
  • Jamaican Uniform Crake, Amaurolimnas concolor concolor (Jamaica, West Indies, 1890) - Uniform Crake nominate subspecies
  • Intact Rail, Gymnocrex plumbeiventris intactus (Melanesia, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Bare-eyed Rail which is known from a single specimen, c. mid-19th century, from the Solomon Islands or New Ireland. The taxon may be extant.
  • Bornean Baillon's Crake, Porzana pusilla mira (Borneo, 20th century?)
A subspecies of Baillon's Crake known from a single 1912 specimen and not found since; may be extinct, but species is hard to find.
  • Iwo Jima White-browed Crake, Porzana cinerea brevipes (Iwo Jima and Minami Iōjima, Ogasawara Islands, early 20th century).
A subspecies of the White-browed Crake that is often considered synonymous with the nominate.
  • Moroccan Bustard, Ardeotis arabs lynesi (Morocco, 1990s)
A subspecies of the Arabian Bustard. Last observed in 1993 at Lac Merzouga/Lac Tamezguidat.
  • Luzon Sarus Crane, Grus antigone luzonica (Luzon, Philippines, late 1960s)
A subspecies of the Sarus Crane which is not always accepted as valid, probably mainly because the specimens have never been thoroughly studied since the subspecies' description.

Ciconiiformes

Herons and related birds.

  • Bonin Nankeen Night Heron, Nycticorax caledonicus crassirostris (Nakoudo-jima and Chichi-jima, Ogasawara Islands, c.1890) - Nankeen Night Heron subspecies
    Principe Olive Ibis, Bostrychia olivacea rothschildi (Principe, Gulf of Guinea, 1900s) - Olive Ibis subspecies

Pelecaniformes

Cormorants and related birds.

  • Tasman Booby, Sula dactylatra tasmani fide van Tets et al., 1988 (Lord Howe and Norfolk Islands, SW Pacific, c.1790?)
This is often regarded as a distinct species, but at best it is a subspecies of the Masked Booby. Probably identical to the extant Lord Howe Island population described as S. d. fullagari, which would in this case be named S. d. tasmani fide Holdaway & Anderson, 2001.
  • Levant Darter, Anhinga rufa chantrei (Middle East, early 1990s?)
A questionable subspecies of the African Darter (Anhinga melanogaster chantrei if all Old World darters are considered one species) which ultimately seems to have become a victim of war and habitat destruction in Iraq.

Pteroclidiformes

Sandgrouse.

  • Fayyum Sandgrouse, Pterocles exustus floweri (Egypt, c.1940)
Chestnut-bellied Sandgrouse subspecies, may have survived until early 1980s.

Columbiformes

Pigeons, doves and dodos.

  • Madeiran Wood Pigeon, Columba palumbus maderensis (Madeira, East Atlantic, early 20th century) - Wood Pigeon subspecies
    Ogasawara Japanese Wood-pigeon, Columba janthina nitens (Ogasawara Islands, Northwest Pacific, 1980s) - Japanese Wood-pigeon subspecies
    Lord Howe Metallic Pigeon, Columba vitiensis godmanae (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1853)- Metallic Pigeon subspecies
    Tongan Metallic Pigeon, Columba vitiensis ssp. (Vava'u, Tonga, late 18th century?)
This subspecies of the Metallic Pigeon is only known from a footnote in John Latham's "General History of Birds", and seems to have died out some time before 1800; possibly, the location is erroneous and the note really refers to the extant population of Fiji.
  • Catanduanes Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba luzonica rubiventris (Catanduanes, Philippines, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Luzon Bleeding-heart known from a single specimen collected in 1971. It is either near extinction or already extinct.
  • Basilan Bleeding-heart, Gallicolumba crinigera bartletti (Basilan, Philippines, mid-20th century?)
A subspecies of the Mindanao Bleeding-heart, it was last reported in 1925 and given the massive habitat destruction is likely extinct.
  • Vella Lavella Ground Dove, Gallicolumba jobiensis chalconota (Vella Lavella, Makira and Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the White-bibbed Ground Dove or possibly a distinct species. Known from only 4 specimens, there are no recent records and the local population report it has disappeared.
  • White-headed Polynesian Ground-dove, Gallicolumba erythroptera albicollis (Central Tuamotu Islands, 20th century)
The Central Tuamotu subspecies of the Polynesian Ground-dove, often referred to as G. e. pectoralis, disappeared at an undetermined date, but might still exist on some unsurveyed atolls. The identity of Northern Tuamotu populations, possibly still extant, is undetermined.
  • Ebon Purple-capped Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus porphyraceus marshallianus (Ebon, Marshall Islands?, late 19th century?)
Known from a single specimen collected in 1859, it is not certain whether this bird actually occurred on Ebon. All that can be said is that this subspecies is no longer found anywhere.
  • Mauke Fruit Dove, Ptilinopus rarotongensis "byronensis" (Mauke, Cook Islands, mid-/late 19th century)
A subspecies of the Rarotonga Fruit Dove, known only from the description of a now-lost specimen. the prehistorically extinct population on Mangaia is likely to belong to another distinct subspecies too.
  • Negros Grey-necked Imperial-pigeon, Ducula carola nigrorum (Negros and probably Siquijor, late 20th century) - Grey-necked Imperial Pigeon subspecies
  • Norfolk Island Kererū, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae spadicea (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, mid-19th century)
A subspecies of the Kererū or New Zealand Pigeon. Similar birds were reported from Lord Howe Island; these seem to represent another extinct subspecies but are undescribed to date.
  • Raoul Island Kererū, Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae ssp. nov. (Raoul, Kermadec Islands, 19th century)
Another undescribed subspecies (or possibly species) of the Kererū, known from bones and a brief report.

Psittaciformes

Parrots.

  • Sangir Red and Blue Lory, Eos histrio histrio (Sangir Archipelago, Indonesia, c.1997)
The nominate subspecies of the Red and Blue Lory was hybridized out of existence by escaped trade individuals of the subspecies talautensis, the last purebred individuals disappearing in the 1990s or even much earlier.
  • Challenger's Lory, Eos histrio challengeri (Nenusa Islands, Talaud Archipelago, early 20th century?)
A supposed subspecies of the Red and Blue Lory, but probably invalid.
  • Macquarie Island Red-crowned Parakeet, Cyanoramphus erythrotis erythrotis (Macquarie Islands, SW Pacific, c.1891) - Subantarctic Red-crowned Parakeet nominate subspecies
    Lord Howe Island Red-fronted Parakeet, Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae subflavescens (Lord Howe Island, SW Pacific, c.1870) - Red-crowned Parakeet subspecies
    Westerman's Eclectus Parrot, Eclectus roratus westermani (Indonesia, 20th century?)
Known only from 16 captive birds specimens and last recorded in 1899, this enigmatic subspecies of the Eclectus Parrot is often considered an aviary hybrid. However, it may has well have occurred on islands at the northern or eastern end of the Banda Sea, becoming extinct some time in the 20th century - or might even still exist in a little-surveyed location.
  • Réunion Parakeet, Psittacula eques eques (Réunion, Mascarenes, mid-18th century)
Known only from a painting and descriptions; if it is accepted as valid, it would become the nominate subspecies of the Echo Parakeet, extant on Mauritius, which would then have to be called P. eques echo.
  • Siquijor Colasisi, Loriculus philippensis siquijorensis (Siquijor, Philippines, 1990s)
A subspecies of the Colasisi or Philippine Hanging Parrot, either very rare or already extinct.
  • Puerto Rican Parakeet, Aratinga chloroptera maugei (Mona and possibly Puerto Rico, West Indies, 1890s)
A weakly differentiated subspecies of the Hispaniolan Parakeet.
  • Sinú Brown-throated Parakeet, Aratinga pertinax griseipecta (Colombia, mid-/late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Brown-throated Parakeet known from only 2 specimens collected in 1949 and of unclear taxonomical and conservation status.
  • Culebra Island Parrot, Amazona vittata gracilipes (Culebra, West Indies, 1900s)
A weakly differentiated subspecies of the Puerto Rican Parrot which is itself highly endangered.

Cuculiformes

Cuckoos.

  • Greater Crested Coua, Coua cristata maxima (SE Madagascar, late 20th century)
Crested Coua subspecies, known only from a single specimen taken in 1950
  • Timor Pheasant Coucal, Centropus phasianinus mui (Timor, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
A very distinctive Pheasant Coucal subspecies or possibly a distinct species which is mysteriously only known from one specimen.
  • Assumption Island Coucal, Centropus toulou assumptionis (Assumption Island, Seychelles, c.1920s)
A Madagascar Coucal subspecies often considered synonymous with the Aldabra form insularis, which has recolonized Assumption Island at a later date.
  • Cabo San Lucas Groove-billed Ani, Crotophaga sulcirostris pallidula (Mexico, c.1940)
A weakly differentiated and probably invalid subspecies of the Groove-billed Ani
  • Bahía Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo, Neomorphus geoffroyi maximiliani (E Brazil, mid-20th century) - Rufous-vented Ground Cuckoo subspecies

Falconiformes

Birds of prey.

  • Cape Verde Kite, Milvus milvus fasciicauda (Cape Verde Islands, E Atlantic, 2000)
Considered either a subspecies of the Red Kite, a distinct species, the validity of this taxon has recently being questioned based on molecular analysis. However, hybridization and a confusing molecular phylogeny of Red Kite populations coupled with the distinct phenotype of the Cape Verde birds suggest that the taxonomic status of this form is far from resolved.
  • Anjouan Island Sparrow Hawk, Accipiter francesii pusillus
This subspecies of Frances' Goshawk from Ndzouani (Anjouan), Comoros, was last seen in 1978; given that few habitat remains, it is probably extinct.
  • Car Nicobar Sparrowhawk, Accipiter butleri butleri (Car Nicobar, Nicobar Islands, 20th century?)
The nominate subspecies of the Nicobar Sparrowhawk - which is currently listed as Vulnerable - is possibly extinct. It was last reliably recorded in 1901 and despite searches, has not been sighted after an unconfirmed record in 1977.
  • Korean Sea Eagle, Haliaeetus pelagicus niger (Korea, 1950s) - Steller's Sea Eagle subspecies

Strigiformes

Owls.

  • Sulu Reddish Scops Owl, Otus rufescens burbidgei (Sulu, Philippines, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Reddish Scops Owl. Known from a single questionable specimen and may not be valid.
  • Virgin Islands Screech Owl, Otus nudipes newtoni
A subspecies of the Puerto Rican Screech Owl of somewhat doubtful validity which occurred on several of the Virgin Islands, West Indies. The last reliable records are in 1860; it was not found in thorough surveys in 1995.
  • Socorro Elf Owl, Micrathene whitneyi graysoni (Socorro, Revillagigedo Islands, c.1970)
A subspecies of the Elf Owl; the last specimen was taken in 1932, but there apparently still was a large population in 1958.
  • Antiguan Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia amaura (Antigua, St Kitts and Nevis, West Indies, c.1905) - Burrowing Owl subspecies
  • Bahaman Burrowing Owl, Athene cunicularia guadeloupensis (Guadeloupe and Marie-Galante, West Indies, c.1890) - Burrowing Owl subspecies
  • Lord Howe Island Morepork, Ninox novaeseelandiae albaria (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1950s) - Southern Boobook subspecies
  • Norfolk Island Morepork, Ninox novaeseelandiae undulata (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1996)
Individuals of the nominate subspecies were introduced in a last-ditch effort to save the local owl population. There now exists a hybrid population of a few dozen birds; the last individual of N. n. undulata, a female named Miamiti died in 1996.
  • Cave-nesting Masked Owl, Tyto novaehollandiae troughtoni (Nullarbor Plain, Australia, 1960s)
Doubtfully distinct from nominate subspecies, but differed behaviorally.
  • Buru Masked Owl, Tyto sororcula cayelii (Buru, Indonesia, mid-20th century)
Subspecies of Lesser Masked Owl. Last seen in 1921; the identity of a similar bird found on Seram remains to be determined.
  • Peleng Masked Owl, Tyto rosenbergii pelengensis (Peleng, Banggai Islands, mid-20th century)
Subspecies of Sulawesi Owl or separate species. Possibly extant, but only specimen known taken in 1938 and no further records.
  • Samar Bay Owl, Phodilus badius riverae (Samar, Philippines, mid-20th century)
Subspecies of Oriental Bay Owl or possibly distinct species. Taxonomy doubtful but only specimen lost in 1945 bombing raid so validity cannot be verified; no population exists on Samar today.

Caprimulgiformes

Nightjars and allies.

  • New Caledonian White-throated Eared-Nightjar, Eurostopodus mystacalis exsul (New Caledonia, Melanesia, mid-20th century)
This distinct subspecies of the White-throated Eared-Nightjar is possibly a separate species. It was found only once; due to its cryptic habits, it possibly still exists, but this is now considered unlikely.

Apodiformes

Swifts and hummingbirds.

  • Alejandro Selkirk Firecrown, Sephanoides fernandensis leyboldi (Alejandro Selkirk Island, Juan Fernandez Islands, Southeast Pacific, 1908) - Juan Fernandez Firecrown subspecies
  • Luzon Whitehead's Swiftlet, Collocalia whiteheadi whiteheadi (Luzon, Philippines, 20th century?)
The nominate subspecies of Whitehead's Swiftlet is only known from four specimens collected at Mount Data in 1895 and from the lack of further records and the massive habitat destruction, it is usually considered extinct. Given the size of the island, it might still exist though.

Coraciiformes

Kingfishers and related birds.

  • Sangihe Dwarf-kingfisher, Ceyx fallax sangirensis (Sangihe, Indonesia, 1998?)
This subspecies of the Sulawesi Kingfisher was last seen in 1997 but not during a thorough survey one year later; it is either close to extinction or already extinct. Sometimes it is said to occur on Talaud Islands also, but this is erroneous.
  • Rarotonga Kingfisher, Todiramphus cf. tuta (Rarotonga, Cook Islands, mid-1980s?)
There exist reports of locals that kingfishers - probably a subspecies of the Chattering Kingfisher which is found on neighboring islands, but possibly vagrants from there - were found until around 1979, and there is a last record from 1984. Presently, no kingfishers are known to exist on Rarotonga.
  • Mangareva Kingfisher, Todiramphus gambieri gambieri (Mangareva, Gambier Islands, late 19th century)
Only known from a single 1844 specimen, the nominate subspecies of the Tuamotu Kingfisher was not found anymore when it was next searched for in 1922.
  • Javan Blue-banded Kingfisher, Alcedo euryzona euryzona (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century)
The nominate subspecies of the Blue-banded Kingfischer; the last specimen was taken in 1937 and the last unconfirmed records are from the 1950s.
  • Guadalcanal Little Kingfisher, Alcedo pusilla aolae (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) - Little Kingfisher subspecies
    Malaita Variable Kingfisher, Ceyx lepidus malaitae (Malaita, Solomon Islands) - Variable Kingfisher subspecies
    Sakarha Pygmy Kingfisher, Ispidina madagascariensis dilutus (Southwest Madagascar, late 20th century?)
This subspecies of the Madagascar Pygmy Kingfisher is only known from one specimen taken in 1974 in an area where most habitat had already been lost.
  • Ticao Tarictic Hornbill, Penelopides panini ticaensis (Ticao, Philippines, 1970s)
A subspecies of the Tarictic Hornbill of somewhat uncertain status - possibly a distinct species, possibly a color morph -; the last confirmed report was in 1971 and it became extinct shortly thereafter.

Piciformes

Woodpeckers and related birds.

  • Guadalupe Flicker, Colaptes cafer rufipileus (Guadalupe, East Pacific, c.1910)
A subspecies of the Red-shafted Flicker (or the Northern Flicker, as C. auratus rufipileus), it was last recorded in 1906 and not found anymore in 1911 and 1922. Recently, vagrant birds of a mainland subspecies have begun recolonizing the island as the habitat improves after the removal of feral goats.
  • Javan Buff-rumped Woodpecker, Meiglyptes tristis tristis (Java, Indonesia, c.1920)
The nominate subspecies of the Buff-rumped Woodpecker became rare during the 19th century due to destruction of habitat. The last confirmed record was in 1880, and it obviously became extinct in the early 20th century.
  • Northern White-mantled Barbet, Capito hypoleucus hypoleucus (Colombia, mid-20th century)
The nominate subspecies of the White-mantled Barbet has not been seen since the late 1940s and its habitat has been almost completely destroyed.
  • Botero White-mantled Barbet, Capito hypoleucus carrikeri (Colombia, mid-20th century)
Another subspecies of the White-mantled Barbet, last seen in 1950.
  • Todd's Jacamar, Brachygalba lugubris phaeonota (Brazil, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Brown Jacamar, or possibly a hybrid, color morph or full species. Might survive as it is only known from a remote and seldom visited area.

Passeriformes

Perching birds.

Tyrannidae - Tyrant flycatchers

  • Bogotá Bearded Tachuri, Polystictus pectoralis bogotensis (C Colombia, late 20th century?)
A Bearded Tachuri subspecies or possibly a distinct species that has not been recorded for some time and is probably extinct.
  • Grenadan Euler's Flycatcher - Lathrotriccus euleri flaviventris (Grenada, West Indies, early 1950s)
A subspecies of Euler's Flycatcher, formerly known as Empidonax euleri johnstonei.

Pittidae - Pittas

  • Bougainville Black-faced Pitta, Pitta anerythra pallida (Bougainville, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Black-faced Pitta. Once common on Bougainville, but not recorded since 1938.
  • Choiseul Black-faced Pitta, Pitta anerythra nigrifrons (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, late 20th century?)
Another subspecies of the Black-faced Pitta. Not found anymore during recent searches; doubtful records from nearby islands.

Furnariidae - Ovenbirds

  • Peruvian Scale-throated Earthcreeper, Upucerthia dumetaria peruana (Peru, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Scale-throated Earthcreeper, it is only known from 2 specimens taken in the early 1950s at Puno, Peru, and has never been found since. It might still exist, or have become extinct due to habitat destruction in the meantime.
  • Northern Stripe-crowned Spinetail, Cranioleuca pyrrhophia rufipennis (N Bolivia, late 20th century?)
A Stripe-crowned Spinetail subspecies known from a few specimens and not recorded since the 1950s; may be endangered or even extinct.

Formicariidae - Antpittas and antthrushes

  • Northern Giant Antpitta, Grallaria gigantea lehmanni (Colombia, late 20th century?)
A Giant Antpitta (or possibly Great Antpitta) subspecies apparently not recorded since the 1940s. Might still survive in Puracé National Park.
  • Narińo Giant Antpitta, Grallaria gigantea hylodroma (Colombia, c.1990?)
Another Giant Antpitta subspecies, or possibly a distinct species, probably last recorded in 1989, but not anymore some years later. might still persist in La Planada Nature Reserve, but searches were unsuccessful.

Pardalotidae - Pardalotes, scrubwrens, thornbills, and gerygones

  • Western Rufous Bristlebird, Dasyornis broadbenti littoralis (Australia, 20th century) - Rufous Bristlebird subspecies
  • King Island Brown Thornbill, Acanthiza pusilla archibaldi (King Island, Australia, early 1970s) - Brown Thornbill subspecies

Cinclosomatidae - Whipbirds and allies

  • Mount Lofty Spotted Quail-thrush, Cinclosoma punctatum anachoreta (Australia, mid-1980s)
A subspecies of the Spotted Quail-thrush, last recorded in 1984.

Dicruridae - Monarch flycatchers and allies

  • Negros Celestial Monarch, Hypothymis coelestis rabori (Negros and possibly Sibuyan, Philippines, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Celestial Monarch, not uncommon on Negros in 1959, but never recorded afterwards. A single Sibuyan specimen from a unspecified locality taken in the 19th century is the only record for this island.
  • Hiva Oa Monarch, Pomarea mendozae mendozae (Hiva Oa and Tahuata, Marquesas, late 1970s) - Marquesas Monarch nominate subspecies
  • Manu'a Shrikebill, Clytorhynchus vitiensis powelli (Manu'a Islands, Samoa, 1990s?)
Usually treated as a subspecies of the Fiji Shrikebill but probably a distinct species, the American Samoan population declined due to habitat destruction and may have become extinct following the cyclones Ofa and Val.
  • Nendo Shrikebill, Clytorhynchus nigrogularis sanctaecrucis (Nendo, Santa Cruz Islands, mid-20th century?)
A subspecies of the Black-throated Shrikebill or more probably a distinct species that was only once found, in 1927. Due to lack of research it is not known whether this bird still exists; it was not found during the single thorough survey in recent times and it can be presumed to be affected by habitat destruction and typhoons.
  • Lord Howe Fantail, Rhipidura fuliginosa cervina (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, c.1925) - Grey Fantail subspecies
  • Guam Rufous Fantail, Rhipidura rufifrons uraniae (Guam, Marianas, 1984) - Rufous Fantail subspecies

Campephagidae - Cuckoo-shrikes and trillers

  • Cebu Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina striata cebuensis (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century) - Bar-bellied Cuckoo-shrike subspecies
  • Maros Cicadabird, Coracina tenuirostris edithae (Sulawesi, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Cicadabird known from a single specimen collected in 1931; quite possibly just a vagrant individual.
  • Cebu Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina coerulescens altera (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century)
A Blackish Cuckoo-shrike subspecies; possibly extant as the birds are rather unmistakable and a 1999 record therefore likely to be valid.
  • Marinduque Blackish Cuckoo-shrike, Coracina coerulescens deschauenseei (Marinduque, Philippines, late 20th century?)
Another Blackish Cuckoo-shrike subspecies, described from specimens collected in 1971, but apparently not seen since.
  • Norfolk Island Long-tailed Triller, Lalage leucopyga leucopyga (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, 1942)
A subspecies of the Long-tailed Triller, possibly a distinct species.

Oriolidae - Orioles and Figbird

  • Cebu Dark-throated Oriole, Oriolus xanthonotus assimilis (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century) - Dark-throated Oriole subspecies

Corvidae - Crows, ravens, magpies and jays

  • Pied Raven, Corvus corax varius morpha leucophaeus (Faroe Islands, 1948)
A distinct local variety of the Icelandic subspecies of the Common Raven.

Callaeidae - New Zealand wattlebirds

  • South Island Kōkako, Callaeas cinerea cinerea (South Island, New Zealand, 1960s?)
The nominate subspecies of the Kōkako is usually considered extinct, as it has not been reliably recorded for decades. However, there are recent reports from Fiordland suggesting a population still exists.

Cinclidae - Dippers

  • Cyprus Dipper, Cinclus cinclus olympicus (Cyprus, Northeast Mediterranean, 1950s)
A subspecies of the White-throated Dipper of questionable validity.

Ploceidae - Weavers

  • Ruwet's Masked-Weaver, Ploceus reichardi ruweti (D.R. Congo, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Tanzania Masked-weaver, formerly considered a distinct species. No recent information on its status, and it may be a hybrid.

Estrildidae - Estrildid finches (waxbills, munias, etc)

  • Southern Star Finch, Neochmia ruficauda ruficauda (Australia, c.2000)
A subspecies of the Star Finch; officially critically endangered but probably recently extinct. Not known to survive in captivity.

Thraupidae - Tanagers

  • Gonâve Western Chat-tanager, Calyptophilus tertius abbotti (Gonâve, West Indies, c.1980?)
A Western Chat-tanager subspecies last recorded in 1977 and probably extinct.
  • Samaná Eastern Chat-tanager, Calyptophilus frugivorus frugivorus (E Hispaniola, West Indies, 1980s?)
An Eastern Chat-tanager; the last (unconfirmed?) record was in 1982.

Icteridae - Grackles

  • Grand Cayman Oriole, Icterus leucopteryx bairdi (Grand Cayman, West Indies, mid-20th century)
A subspecies of the Jamaican Oriole, last reliably recorded in 1938.

Fringillidae - True finches

  • San Benito House Finch, Carpodacus mexicanus mcgregori (San Benito, East Pacific, c.1940s) - House Finch subspecies

Drepanididae - Hawaiian honeycreepers

  • Lana‘i 'Alauahio, Paroreomyza montana montana (Lana‘i, Hawaiian Islands, 1937)
A subspecies of the Maui ‘Alauahio (or properly Maui Nui ‘Alauahio).
  • Maui Akepa, Loxops coccineus ochraceus (Maui, Hawaiian Islands, 1988) - Akepa subspecies
  • O‘ahu Akepa, Loxops coccineus wolstenholmei (O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands, 1990s) - Akepa subspecies
  • Laysan ‘Apapane, Himatione sanguinea freethi (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, 1923)
The last individuals of this subspecies of the ‘Apapane, possibly a distinct species, disappeared in a sandstorm, probably on the night of April 23/April 24, 1923.

Emberizidae - Buntings and American sparrows

Dusky Seaside Sparrow
Dusky Seaside Sparrow
  • Saint Kitts Bullfinch, Loxigilla portoricensis grandis (Saint Kitts and prehistorically Barbuda, West Indies, 1930) - Puerto Rican Bullfinch subspecies
    Todos Santos Rufous-crowned Sparrow, Aimophila ruficeps sanctorum (Islas Todos Santos, E Pacific, 1970s) - Rufous-crowned Sparrow subspecies
    Dusky Seaside Sparrow, Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens (Florida, 1987) - Seaside Sparrow subspecies
    Guadalupe Spotted Towhee, Pipilo maculatus consobrinus (Guadalupe Island, East Pacific, c.1900) - Spotted Towhee subspecies
    Darwin's Large Ground Finch, Geospiza magnirostris magnirostris (Floreana?, Galapagos Islands, 1957?)
The subspecies of the Large Ground Finch collected by Charles Darwin in 1835; he gave no precise locality. A similar bird was found in 1957, but no others have ever been seen.

Mimidae - Mockingbirds and thrashers

  • Barbados Scaly-breasted Thrasher, Allenia fusca atlantica (Barbados, West Indies, c.1990) - Scaly-breasted Thrasher subspecies

Troglodytidae - Wrens

  • San Benedicto Rock Wren, Salpinctes obsoletus exsul (San Benedicto, Revillagigedo Islands, 1952)
A subspecies of the Rock Wren which became extinct around 9 AM, August 1, 1952, when its island habitat was devastated by a massive volcanic eruption.
  • Guadalupe Bewick's Wren, Thyromanes bewickii brevicauda (Guadalupe, East Pacific, 1900s) - Bewick's Wren subspecies
    San Clemente Bewick's Wren, Thryomanes bewickii leucophrys (San Clemente, East Pacific, 1940s) - Bewick's Wren subspecies
    Daito Winter Wren, Troglodytes troglodytes orii (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c.1940)
A disputed Winter Wren subspecies; as it is known from a single specimen that may have been a vagrant individual, it is possibly invalid.
  • Guadeloupe House Wren, Troglodytes aedon guadeloupensis (Guadeloupe, Caribbean, after 1914)
A subspecies of the House Wren (or, if that species is split, the Southern House Wren, as T. musculus guadeloupensis).
  • Martinique House Wren, Troglodytes aedon martinicensis (Martinique, Caribbean, c.1890)
Another subspecies of the (Southern, as T. musculus martinicensis) House Wren.

Paridae - Tits, chickadees and titmice

  • Daito Varied Tit, Sittiparus varius orii (Daito Islands, Northwest Pacific, c.1940) - Varied Tit subspecies

Hirundinidae - Swallows and martins

  • Jamaican Golden Swallow, Tachycineta euchrysea euchrysea (Jamaica, West Indies, c.1990?)
The nominate subspecies of the Golden Swallow, endemic to Jamaica. The last major roost-site was destroyed in 1987, and the last confirmed sighting was in 1989. May still exist in the Cockpit Country, but probably extinct.

Regulidae - Kinglets

  • Guadalupe Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Regulus calendula obscurus (Guadalupe, East Pacific, 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet that has not been found in recent times.

Pycnonotidae - Bulbuls

  • Sumatra Blue-wattled Bulbul, Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii inexspectatus (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Blue-wattled Bulbul known from a single 1937 specimen. The entire "species" may be a hybrid.
  • Cebu Streak-breasted Bulbul, Ixos siquijorensis monticola (Cebu, Philippines, early 20th century) - Streak-breasted Bulbul subspecies

Sylviidae - Old World warblers

Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff
Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff
  • Babar Stubtail, Urosphena subulata advena (Babar, Indonesia, mid-20th century) - Timor Stubtail subspecies
  • Aguiguan Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia nijoi (Aguiguan, Marianas, c.1997)
A subspecies of the Nightingale Reed Warbler of uncertain validity.
  • Astrolabe Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia astrolabii (Marianas?, mid-19th century?)
A valid taxon, probably a subspecies of the Nightingale Reed Warbler, known from just 2 specimens found at an unknown location in the western Pacific.
  • Pagan Nightingale Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus luscinia yamashinae (Pagan, Marianas, 1970s)
Another doubtful subspecies of the Nightingale Reed Warbler.
  • Laysan Millerbird, Acrocephalus familiaris familiaris (Laysan Island, Hawaiian Islands, late 1910s) - Millerbird subspecies
  • Huahine Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus caffer garretti (Huahine, Society Islands, 19th century?)
A poorly known subspecies of the Tahiti Reed Warbler.
  • Raiatea Reed Warbler, Acrocephalus caffer musae (Raiatea, Society Islands, 19th century?)
Another subspecies of the Tahiti Reed Warbler, known only from a drawing.
  • Western Turner's Eremomela, Eremomela turneri kalindei (Congo Basin, early 1980s)
The West African subspecies of Turner's Eremomela has not been recorded since the end of the 1970s and habitat at the locations where it was once found is much reduced or destroyed.
  • Vanua Levu Long-legged Warbler, Trichocichla rufa clunei (Vanua Levu, Fiji, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Long-legged Warbler; it was only found once, but there was an unconfirmed sighting in 1990.
  • Eastern Canary Islands Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus canariensis exsul (Lanzarote and possibly Fuerteventura, Canary Islands, 1986) - Canary Islands Chiffchaff subspecies
    Fayyum Warbler, Sylvia melanocephala norissae (Egypt, c.1940) - Sardinian Warbler subspecies

Cisticolidae - Cisticolas and allies

  • Northern White-winged Apalis, Apalis chariessa chariessa (Kenya, 1960s?)
The nominate subspecies of the White-winged Apalis remains known only from the Tana River, a center of endemism. It was last recorded in 1961.

Zosteropidae - White-eyes

  • Guam Bridled White-eye, Zosterops conspicillatus conspicillatus (Guam, Marianas, 1983) - Bridled White-eye nominate subspecies or possibly monotypic species.
    Mukojima White-eye, Apalopteron familiare familiare (Mukojima Group, Bonin Islands, 1930s) - Bonin White-eye ("Bonin Honeyeater") subspecies

Paradoxornithidae - Parrotbills

  • Amik Gölü Bearded Tit, Panurus biarmicus kosswigi (S Turkey, 1970s) - Bearded Tit subspecies

Timaliidae - Old World babblers

  • Vanderbilt's Babbler, Malacocincla sepiarium vanderbilti (Sumatra, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
An enigmatic subspecies of the Horsfield's Babbler, known from a single specimen. Not seen since the 1940s at least.
  • Javan Large Wren-babbler, Napothera macrodactyla lepidopleura (Java, Indonesia, mid-20th century?)
A Large Wren-babbler subspecies that is either very rare or already extinct.
  • Burmese Jerdon's Babbler, Chrysomma altirostre altirostre (Myanmar, 1940s)
The nominate subspecies of Jerdon's Babbler was last seen in 1941, but due to the lack of recent fieldwork, it might still exist.

Muscicapidae - Old World Flycatchers and chats

  • Tonkean Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatcher, Rhinomyias colonus subsolanus (Sulawesi, Indonesia, late 20th century?)
A Henna-tailed Jungle Flycatcher subspecies that is known from a single specimen; it may not be valid.
  • Chinijo Chat, Saxicola dacotiae murielae (Chinijo Archipelago, Canary Islands, early 20th century) - Fuerteventura Chat subspecies

Turdidae - Thrushes and allies

  • Norfolk Island Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus poliocephalus (Norfolk Island, Southwest Pacific, c.1975) - Island Thrush subspecies
  • Maré Island Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus mareensis (Maré, Melanesia, early 20th century)
A subspecies of the Island Thrush, last collected in 1911 or 1912 and not found anymore in 1939.
  • Lord Howe Island Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus vinitinctus (Lord Howe Island, Southwest Pacific, 1920s) - Island Thrush subspecies
  • Lifou Island Thrush, Turdus poliocephalus pritzbueri (Lifou, Melanesia, early 20th century)
Yet another subspecies of the Island Thrush. Similar birds still exist on Tanna, New Hebrides, but given the fact that the species readily differentiates into subspecies and that the distance between Tanna and Lifou is considerable, it is far from certain that the Tanna birds belong to this subspecies.
  • Cauca Black-hooded Thrush, Turdus olivater caucae (Colombia, late 20th century?)
A subspecies of the Black-hooded Thrush or possibly a distinct species. Not recorded for decades and at least highly threatened by deforestation.
  • Peleng Red-and-black Thrush, Zoothera mendeni mendeni (Peleng, Indonesia, mid-20th century) - Red-and-black Thrush nominate subspecies
  • Kibale Black-eared Ground Thrush, Zoothera cameronensis kibalensis (SW Uganda, late 20th century?)
A Black-eared Ground Thrush subspecies known only from 2 1966 specimens. Rare or possibly already extinct.
  • Choiseul Russet-tailed Thrush, Zoothera heinei choiseuli (Choiseul, Solomon Islands, mid-20th century?)
A subspecies of the Russet-tailed Thrush known from a single specimen found in 1924 and probably killed off by introduced cats, most likely in the 1940s.
  • St Lucia Forest Thrush, Cichlherminia lherminieri sanctaeluciae (St Lucia, West Indies, 1980s)
A subspecies of the Forest Thrush, last seen in 1980.
  • Pines Solitaire, Myadestes elisabeth retrusus (Isla de la Juventud, West Indies, late 1930s?)
A subspecies of the Cuban Solitaire. Unconfirmed records suggest it did still exist in the early 1970s.

See also

External links and references

List adapted, expanded and updated from that in Extinct Birds, Fuller, ISBN 0-19-850837-9 (Extinct Birds is an absorbing study of the world's recently extinct bird species, the first complete survey since Walter Rothschild's classic work of 1907)


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