A breed registry, also known as a stud book or
register, is an official list of animals within a specific
whose parents are known. Animals are usually registered by their
breeders when they are still young. The terms "stud book" and "register"
are also used to refer to lists of male animals "standing at stud", that
is, those animals actively breeding, as opposed to every known specimen
of that breed.
clubs always maintain registries, either directly or through affiliated
Some multi-breed clubs also maintain registries, and there are a few registries
that are maintained by other private entities.
dog organizations also maintain registries.
Types of registry
In a closed stud book, the parents must also be registered in this or
another registry for the breed that the organization maintaining the registry
will accept (such as that in another country). This ensures that the animal is a
member of the breed.
In an open stud book, animals can be registered without their parents
having been previously registered. This allows breeders to strengthen breeds by
including individuals who conform to the breed standard but are from unknown or
undocumented origins. Some
horse clubs allow
crossbreds who meet specific criteria to be registered.
Another form of open registry in the purebred dog world is a Registry on
Merit. In a Registry on Merit any dog that meets certain performance
criteria is eligible for inclusion in the registry, regardless of conformation
or ancestry. Registry on Merit is prevalent with
registries, in particular those of the
Border Collie, and some other breeds with a heavy emphasis on
Crossbreeding and backbreeding
In some registries, breeders may apply for permission to
crossbreed other breeds into the line to emphasize certain traits, to keep
the breed from
or to alleviate problems caused in the breed by
from a limited set of animals. A related preservation method is backbreeding,
used by some equine and canine registries, in which crossbred individuals are
mated back to purebreds to eliminate undesirable traits acquired through the
have a registered name, that is, the name under which they are registered
as a purebred
with the appropriate
club, and a call name, which is how their owners talk to them. In
working dog registries, the registered name and the call name are usually the
The registered name often refers directly or indirectly to the kennel where
the dog was bred; kennel clubs often require that the
kennel prefix form the first part of the dog's registered name. For example,
all dogs bred at the Gold Mine Kennels would have names that begin with the
words "Gold Mine". Many breeders name their puppies sequentially: Litter A,
Litter B… in which the names of all the puppies start with the letter "A", then
"B" etc. Some breeders include the names of the sire, dam or other forebears in
the puppies’ names. A more imaginative breeder at the Gold Mine Kennels might
name all the puppies of one litter after precious stones or minerals. The names
of all the puppies from another litter might be required to start with "Emerald"
or refer to any precious stone that's green. A subsequent litter might contain
the adjectives describing precious stones: Gold Mine Sparkle, Gold
Mine Brilliance, etc. Breeders may be as creative or as mundane as they
In order to minimize the unwieldiness that long and fancy names can bring,
kennel clubs usually limit the total number of characters that may compose the
dog’s registered name. Further, breeders are generally not allowed to use any
name that may be misleading, such as the word ‘champion’ in a name, a
or anything that can be mistaken for the name of another
The call name can be anything that the dog's owner prefers. For example,
Ch. Gold Mine Emerald's Brightest Sparkle might be called “Goldie’,
"Sparky", "Bright", "Green", "Precious", "Gem", or, for that matter, "Fido".
By contrast, dogs in the breed registry of a working dog club (particularly
dogs) must usually have simple, no-nonsense monikers deemed to be “working
dog names” such as “Pal”, “Blackie” or “Ginger”. The naming rules for
independent dog clubs vary but are usually similar to those of kennel clubs.
- See the American Border Collie Association's
Registry on Merit Program.
- An example of a registry not associated with a breed or kennel club: the
"Field Dog Stud Book" is a registry of field and hunting dogs that is
maintained by a magazine publisher.
| Backyard Breeder
| Breed Club
| Breed Registry
| Breed Standard
| Dog Hybrids and Crossbreeds
| Puppy Mills
| Selective Breeding
| Stud Master
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