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Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor

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Canine transmissible venereal tumor, also called transmissible venereal tumor (TVT), Sticker tumor and infectious sarcoma is a tumor of the dog and other canids that mainly affects the external genitalia. In male dogs, the tumor affects the penis or prepuce. In females, it affects the vagina or labia. Rarely, the mouth or nose are affected. The tumor often has a cauliflowerlike appearance. The disease is spread when dogs mate. The tumor does not often metastasize. Biopsy is necessary for diagnosis. Chemotherapy is very effective for this type of tumor, but surgery often leads to recurrence. The prognosis for complete remission is excellent. Canine TVT was initially described by Russian veterinarian Novinsky in 1876, when he demonstrated that the tumor could be transplanted from one dog to another by infecting them with tumor cells.

Tumor cells have fewer chromosomes than normal cells. Dog cells normally have 78 chromosomes; tumor cells contain 57 - 64 chromosomes.


  • Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.(1995).Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine(4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-6795-3
  • Mello Martins, M.I. 2005. Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumor: Etiology, Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. In: Recent Advances in Small Animal Reproduction, Concannon P.W., England G., Verstegen III J. and Linde-Forsberg C. (Eds.). International Veterinary Information Service, Ithaca NY
  • Morrison, Wallace B. (1998). Cancer in Dogs and Cats (1st ed.). Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-06105-4

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