Heart Valve Dysplasia
Heart valve dysplasia is a congenital
defect which in
dogs and cats
affects the aortic, pulmonary, mitral, and tricuspid
Pulmonary valve stenosis and
aortic valve stenosis are discussed separately. Dysplasia of the
mitral and tricuspid valves can cause leakage of blood or
Dysplasia of the mitral and tricuspid valves - also known as the
atrioventricular (AV) valves - can appear as thickened, shortened, or notched
chordae tendinae can be fused or thickened. The
papillary muscles can be enlarged or
The cause is unknown, but
play a big role. Dogs and cats with tricuspid valve dysplasia often also have an
foramen ovale, an
atrial septal defect, or inflammation of the right atrial
In dogs, tricuspid valve dysplasia can be similar to
Ebstein's anomaly in humans.
Mitral valve stenosis is one of the most common congenital heart defects in
cats. In dogs, it is most commonly found in
German Shepherd Dogs,
Tricuspid valve dysplasia is most common in the
Old English Sheepdog, German Shepherd Dog,
Labrador Retriever, and
The disease and symptoms are similar to progression of valve disease in older
dogs. Valve leakage leads to heart enlargement, arrhythmias, and
congestive heart failure. Heart valve dysplasia can be tolerated for years
or progress to heart failure in the first year of life. Diagnosis is with an
echocardiogram. There is a poor
with significant heart enlargement.
- Abbott, Jonathan A. (2000). Small Animal Cardiology Secrets (1st
ed.). Hanley & Belfus, Inc.
- Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.(1995).Textbook of Veterinary
Internal Medicine(4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company.
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