Masticatory Muscle Myositis
Masticatory muscle myositis (MMM) is an inflammatory disease in
of the jaw. It is also known as atrophic myositis or
eosinophilic myositis. The disease mainly affects large breed dogs.
There is a similar disease of the eye muscles found in
Golden Retrievers. Symptoms of acute MMM include swelling of the jaw
muscles and pain on opening the mouth. In chronic MMM there is
of the jaw muscles, and scarring may result in inability to open the
The disease is usually bilateral.
MMM is caused by the presence of
2M fibers in the muscles of the jaw. 2M fibers are not found elsewhere in
the body, but they are close in structure to
found on the surface of
immune system recognizes these proteins as foreign to the body and attacks
them, resulting in
inflammation. Diagnosis of MMM is through
Treatment is usually with
corticosteroids, and in the case of trismus, manual opening of the mouth
anesthesia. Feeding very soft or liquid food during this time is usually
necessary. Recurrence of MMM is common.
- Chrisman, Cheryl; Clemmons, Roger; Mariani, Christopher; Platt, Simon
(2003). Neurology for the Small Animal Practitioner(1st ed.). Teton
- Ettinger, Stephen J.;Feldman, Edward C.(1995).Textbook of Veterinary
Internal Medicine(4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company.
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