Danio rerio — zebra danio
Danio abolineatus var pulcher
Danio abolineatus var tweediei
Danio kyathit var spotted
Danio kyathit var striped
Danio rerio var frankei
Danio sp "Hikari"
Danio sp aff kyathit
Danio sp "KP01"
Danio sp "TW01"
Danio sp "TW02"
Danio sp "TW03"
Devario sp "Broken Line"
Microrasbora sp "galaxy"
Parachela oxygastroides - Glass Fish
Tanichthys (not strictly a danionin)
The Danionins are small minnow-type fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae, mostly in the genera Danio and Devario (Some species were previously in the genus formerly known as Brachydanio). They are native to the fresh waters of southeast Asia, but many species are brightly coloured, and are available as aquarium fish worldwide. Danios tend to have horizontal stripes and long barbels, Devarios tend to have vertical bars and short rudimentary barbels, if barbels are present at all. A number of the species have only been recently discovered, in remote inland areas of Laos and Myanmar and do not yet have scientific names. The phrase Danionins is used to describe all the Danio species which include fish within the genera Danio, Devario, Chela, Esomus, Inlecypris, Parachela and probably also Danionella, Microrasbora and Sundadanio. Tanichthys is often regarded as a Danionin however there is no scientific basis for this. The Danionins can be classed as a subfamily Danioninae which is increasingly gaining credibility as a distinct subfamily from Rasboriniae within the Cyprinidae family.
All Danionins are egg scatters and breed in the rainy season in the wild. They are generally active swimmers occupying the top half of a tank and are carnivores, living on insects and small crustaceans in the wild, although they will eat just about any type of aquarium food. They will not, however, generally eat plants or algae.
Although boisterous and liable to chase each other and other fish, they are good community fish and will not generally attack each other or other fish, although they occasionally nip fins, more by accident than design and will, like most fish, eat eggs and any fish small enough to fit into their mouths.
They are best kept in a tank long enough for their active swimming, preferably with a current from a power filter (or at least airstone) as they often live in fast flowing streams in the wild. Generally this also results in them being sub tropical with temperatures of 20 to 22 degrees Celsius (low seventies degrees Fahrenheit) often being fine, however they are good jumpers and a tight fitting lid is recommended.
Common names given to Danionin species
Since 2004 many new Danionins have been discovered which do not yet have scientific names and many other species, previously known only to the scientific fraternity have become available in Aquarist Shops. This has predictably led to total confusion as to the naming of some fish, with some species having up to five different common names in use and some common names bein used for up to four different species. As a result all Danionin common names known to be in use are listed on a separate page:
Species, listed in order of scientific name, categorised by genus
The species remaining in the Danio genus comprise most of the Danionins familiar to aquarists. They have two pairs of long barbels and are generally characterised by horizontal stripes (with the exception of the Glowlight Danio and Black Barred Danio which have vertical bars. In size they range from 4 cm/ 1.75 in) to 15 cm/ 6 in).
Frequently used common names are given for reference, however if the common name you are looking for does not appear, click on it on the section above for more details
- Danio albolineatus - Pearl Danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio abolineatus var pulcher - Blue-Redstripe Danio - (5 cm/ 2 in)
Danio abolineatus var tweediei - Kedah Danio - (5 cm/ 2 in)
Danio choprae - Glowlight Danio - (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
Danio dangila - Moustached danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Danio feegradei - Yoma Danio - (8 cm/ 3 in)
Danio kerri - Blue Danio - (5 cm/ 2 in)
Danio kyathit var spotted - Ocelot Danio - (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio kyathit var striped - Orange Finned Zebra Danio - (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio meghalayensis - Meghalaya Danio - (9 cm/ 4 in)
Danio nigrofasciatus - Spotted Danio - (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
Danio roseus - Rose Danio - (6cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio rerio - Zebra danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio rerio var frankei - Leopard Danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio sp "Hikari" - Hikari Danio - (5 cm/ 2 in)
Danio sp aff kyathit - Redfin Danio - (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
Danio sp "KP01" - Burma Zebra Danio - (9 cm/ 3 in)
Danio sp "TW01" - Black Barred Danio - (8 cm/ 3 in)
Danio sp "TW02" - Burma Danio - (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
Danio sp "TW03" - Panther Danio - (5 cm/ 2 in)
The Devarios comprise some Danionins familiar to aquarists. Generally (but not all) larger fish than Danios, they have short barbels (if present at all) and generally have deeper bodies than Danios with species having vertical stripes present (as well as horizontal). In size they range from 5 cm/ 2 in) to 15 cm/ 6 in).
- Devario aequipinnatus - Giant Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario affinis - False Giant Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario assamensis - Red Mirik Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario annandalei - Annandale's Giant Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario browni - Browns Danio (8 cm/ 3.5 in)
Devario chrysotaeniatus Gold Striped Danio - (8 cm/ 3 in)
Devario devario - Bengal Danio or Sind Danio (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario Maetangensis - Fire Bar Danio - (7 cm/ 2.75 in)
Devario laoensis - Laos Giant Danio (8 cm/ 3 in)
Devario malabaricus - Malabar Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Devario pathirana - Barred Danio - (6 cm/ 2 in)
Devario regina - Queen Danio - (13 cm/ 5 in)
Devario shanensis - Shan Danio (7 cm/ 2.75 in)
Devario sp "Broken Line" - Blue Moon Danio - (15 cm/ 6 in)
Little known Devarios
Little is known about the following Devario species, however there is some information about them at the Fishbase Devario index(Fishbase: Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. July 2005 version)
- Devario acrostomus
Devario acuticephala - Sharp Headed Danio
Devario fraseri - Fraser's Danio
Devario kakhienensis - Kakhyen Hills Danio
Devario naganensis - Naga Hills Danio
Devario neilgherriensis - Neilgherry Hills Giant Danio
Devario sondhii - Sondhi's Danio
Not strictly speaking a Danionin but widely regarded as one, this genus has its own Wikipedia page. Click on Tanichthys for more information about these fish.
- Tanichthys albonubes - White Cloud Mountain Minnow -
(6 cm/ 2 in)
Tanichthys micagemmae - Vietnamese Cardinal Minnow - (5 cm/ 1.75 in)
A genus comprising the Flying Barbs, they are closely related to the Danio genus and are distinctive for their extremely long barbels.
- Esomus ahli
Esomus barbatus - South Indian Flying Barb
Esomus danricus - Indian Flying Barb
Esomus lineatus - Striped Flying Barb
Esomus longimanus - Mekong Flying Barb
Esomus malayensis - Malayan Flying Barb
Esomus metallicus - Striped Flying Barb
A closly related genus to Devario
- Chela cachius - Neon Hatchet Fish
Chela caeruleostigmata - Leaping Barb
Chela dadiburjori - Dadio
Chela laubuca - Indian Glass Barb
Closely related to Chela and Devario
- Parachela cyanea
Parachela oxygastroides - Glass Fish
A genus closely related to Devario comprising two smallish barred fish from Lake Inle in Myanmar.
- Inlecypris jayarami
Other Danionin genera
The following genera of tiny fish are thought to be Danionins closely related to Danio and Esomus, but too little is known about them to confirm this.
A genus comprising two tiny, recently discovered fish, Danionella translucida is the smallest known freshwater fish
- Danionella mirifica (1.4 cm/ 0.75 in)
Danionella translucida (1.1 cm/ 0.5 in)
Several other as yet unnamed Danionella species have very recently been discovered.
The genus name means "small Rasbora", however these fish appear to be more closely related to the danios than rasboras. There has been speculation that Microrasbora erythromicron may be transferred to the Danio genus but this now seems unlikely
- Microrasbora erythromicron
Microrasbora sp "galaxy" - Galaxy Rasbora
A genus with only one fish within, the genus was created after the axelrodi species was transferred from the Rasbora. Axelrodi resembles a tiny Rasbora
- Sundadanio axelrodi
Danionins renamed or wrongly identified
- The following genera that previously described
certain danionins are no longer valid:
- All Devario species were formerly in the genus Danio. In addition Devario acuticephala, Devario shanensis and Devario sondhii were also regarded at one time as being in the former genus Brachydanio
- Certain fish were formerly described within Danionin genera and subsequently moved to their correct genus. Where such fish were moved to the genus: Achielognargus, Acanthorhodeus, Barilius, Opsarius, Oxygaster, Paralaubuca, Rhodeus, Salmostoma & Securicula, such fish are not now deemed to be Danionins.
- Allodanio ponticulus, now renamed Barilius ponticulus
- Aphyocypris pooni, "Garnet", now deemed a synonym of Tanichthys albonubes (White Cloud Mountain Minnow)
- Brachydanio acuticephala, now renamed Devario
Brachydanio albolineatus, , now renamed Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
Brachydanio choprae, now renamed Danio choprai (Glowlight Danio)
Brachydanio frankei, now deemed a subspecies of Danio rerio (Danio rerio var frankei)
Brachydanio jayarami, now renamed Inlecypris jayarami
Brachydanio kerri, now renamed Danio kerri (Blue danio)
Brachydanio nigrofasciatus, now renamed Danio nigrofasciatus (Spotted Danio),
Brachydanio pulcher, now deemed a subspecies of Danio albolineatus (Danio abolineatus var pulcher)
Brachydanio rerio, now renamed Danio rerio (Zebra Danio),
Brachydanio shanensis, now renamed Devario shanensis
Brachydanio sondhii, now renamed Devario sondhii
Brachydanio tweediei, now deemed a subspecies of Danio albolineatus (Danio abolineatus var tweediei)
- Danio aeqipinnulus, now deemed a synonym of Devario
aequipinnatus (Giant Danio)
Danio albolineata, now deemed a synonym of Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
Danio analipunctatus, now deemed a synonym of Danio nigrofasciatus (Spotted Danio)
Danio deyi, now deemed a synonym of Danio dangila (Moustached Danio)
Danio interrupta, now deemed a synonym of Devario interruptus
Danio jayarami, now renamed Inlecypris jayarami
Danio lineatus, now deemed a synonym of Danio rerio (Zebra Danio)
Danio lineolatus, now deemed a synonym of Devario aequipinnatus (Giant Danio)
Danio menglaensis, now renamed Opsarius koratensis
Danio menoni, now renamed Chela laubuca
Danio micronema, now deemed a synonym of Devario malabaricus (Malabar Danio)
Danio monshiensis, now renamed Barilius monshiensis,
Danio ponticulus, now renamed Barilius ponticulus
Danio rheinarddti, now renamed Rhodeus rheinardti
Danio salmonatus, now deemed a synonym of Devario salmonata
Danio stoliczae, now deemed a synonym of Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
- Daniops myersi, now renamed Devario laoensis
- Devario chankaeinsis, Khanka Spiny Bitterling, now
renamed Achielognargus chankaeinsis
Devario asmussii Russian Bitterling, now renamed Acanthorhodeus Asmussii
- Chela anastoma, now deemed a synonym of Chela
Chela anomalurus, now renamed Oxygaster anomalura
Chela argentea, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma acinaces
Chela atpar, now deemed a synonym of Chela cachius
Chela bacaila, now renamed Salmostoma bacaila
Chela barroni, now renamed Paralaubuca barroni
Chela boopis, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma boopis
Chela clupeoides, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma balokee
Chela dadidurjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
Chela dadyburjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
Chela dadydurjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
Chela diffusa, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma acinaces
Chela fasciatus, now deemed a synonym of Chela fasciata
Chela horai, now renamed Salmostoma horai
Chela hypophthalmus, now renamed Chela hypophthalmus
Chela gora, now renamed Securicula gora
Chela johorensis, now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
Chela maassi, now deemed a synonym of Chela maasi
Chela maculicauda, now renamed Parachela maculicauda
Chela megalolepsis, now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
Chela mouhoti, now deemed a synonym of Chela caeruleostigmata
Chela nicholsi, now deemed a synonym of Paralaubuca sinensis
Chela oxygaster, now deemed a synonym of Oxygaster anomalura
Chela oxygastroides', now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
Chela panjabensis, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma punjabensis
Chela phulo, now renamed Salmostoma phulo
Chela punjabensis, now renamed Salmostoma punjabensis
Chela pointoni, now renamed Oxygaster pointoni
Chela quangbinhensis, now renamed Devario quangbinhensis
Chela sardinella, now renamed Salmostoma sardinella
Chela siamensis, now renamed Parachela siamensis
Chela sladoni, now renamed Salmostoma sladoni
Chela stigmabrachium, now renamed Paralaubuca stigmabrachium
Chela teekanee, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma balokee
Chela untrahi, now renamed Salmostoma untrahi
- Inlecypris auropurpureus, now renamed Inlecypris auropurpurea
- Carp - fellow cyprinids
- Danios and Devarios. Danios and devarios website. Retrieved on October 01, 2005.
- Clarke, Matt (2005) - A fishkeeper's guide to danios and devarios.. Article on danionins at Practical Fishkeeping's website. Retrieved on October 01, 2005.
- Strood & district Aquarist Society. Strood AS Website. Retrieved on October 31, 2005.
- "Danio". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. July 2005 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2005.
- "Danio." ITIS Standard Report. (Integrated Taxonomic Information System: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., 2004-04-28). ITIS 163695
- Abstract of Fang, F., 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the Asian cyprinid genus Danio (telesotei, Cyprinidae).. Copeia (4):714-728.
- California Academy of Sciences, Icythyology http://www.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp